Geographies of Everyday Life

Subtitle

Lecture Outlines:
 
Spatial Concepts & Spatial Dynamics

Chapter 1:  Spatial Concepts & Spatial Dynamics. Carlson, E. and Coppack, P. (2010) Geographies of Everyday Life, 2nd ed.  Toronto: McGraw-Hill pp. 1-20 

 

v     Course Introduction  / Introduction to the Book

-         Guide to the Book pp. vii – x

 

v     What is Geography?

-         Pattison’s Traditions (1964) pp. 1

 

v     Absolute and Relative Frames of Reference  pp. 2

-         Figure 1.1 Seeing is Believing - What You Want To! pp. 3

 

v     The Research Praxis pp. 5

-         Figure 1.2 The Research Praxis pp. 6

-         Figure 1.3 The Research Steps pp. 7

 

v     Space, Location, Place pp. 7

 

v     Front Country and Back Country Behaviours pp. 9

 

v     The Friction of Distance / Tyranny of Space  pp. 10

-         Figure 1.4 The Basic Distance Decay Model pp. 11

 

v     Time, Space, and Time-Space pp. 12 

-         Time-Space Convergence pp. 13

-          Figure 6.5 A Edinburgh to London pp. 148

-          Figure 6.4 B New York to Boston pp. 148

-          Figure 6.6 Effects of Time-Space Convergence on Hypothetical Trade Areas in Southern Ontario pp. 149

 

-         Time-Space Distantiation pp. 13

-          Figure 6.13 Daily Life Space Over Time pp. 165

-          Figure 6.14 The Evolution of City Form pp. 166

-          Figure 7.4 Distance Decay and Frequency of Trips pp. 177

-          Figure 7.5 Distance Decay for Types of Social Trips pp. 178

-          Figure 7.10 Commuting Change in the Toronto CMA 1971 to  1981 pp. 181

 

v     Proxemics: The Study of Closeness / Social (Proxemic) Distances pp. 17

 

 

Cognitive Filters - Absolute and Relative Frames of Reference

Carlson, E. and Coppack, P. (2010) Geographies of Everyday Life, 2nd ed.  Toronto: McGraw-Hill pp. 3

 

 

 

Environment & Perception 

Chapter 2:  Environment & Perception. Carlson, E. and Coppack, P. (2010) Geographies of Everyday Life, 2nd ed.  Toronto: McGraw-Hill pp. 21-44

v     Defining Environment (physical, built, socio-economic, phenomenal, behavioural, personal, contextual etc.) pp. 21

-         Figure 2.1 Guide to this Course pp. 23

-         Figure 2.3 Sonnenfeld’s Environments – Joseph Sonnenfeld (1972) pp. 26

-         J. Douglas Porteous (1977) pp. 26

-          Porteous Model (Five Social Spaces) pp. 27

 

v     Perception and Cognitive Filtering pp. 27

-         Figure 2.4 Cognitive Filtering – Group & Individual Realities pp. 29

-         Figure 2.11 Perception and Cognition pp. 40

-         Figure 2.12 Alternative Perceptions of Table pp. 40

-         Figure 2.13 Left to Right Conflict pp. 41

-         Figure 3.21 Americas view of the World pp. 77

-         Figure 3.22 A New Yorkers view of the United States pp. 77

 

v     Decision Making pp. 30

-         Types of Decision Makers (maximizer, optimizer, satisficer) pp. 33-34

-         Figure 2.5 Calvin and Hobbes Decision Tree pp. 31

-         Figure 2.6 Steps in the Decision Making Process pp. 31

-         Figure 2.7 Where Uncertainty Comes From pp. 32

-         Figure 2.8 The Decision Making Matrix pp. 35

-         Figure 2.9 A,B & Figure 2.9 C,D Variety and Intensity of Events Over Time / Space pp. 37

 

 

Perception & Cognitive Filtering

Meet the World

In 2005,  a 25-year-old Brazilian man working at a magazine called Grande Reportagem in Lisbon, Portugal, incited a global social justice campaign using email chain letters. The campaign, known as Meet the World, was conceived by a group of four 20-somethings who'd been researching facts and stats about the state of the world.

Using real data taken from Amnesty International and the UN, they developed a series of national flag images based on the actual flags for those places, with the colors and graphics representing current, geographically-relevant issues. Targeted topics include Malaria and HIV/AIDS in Angola, drug trafficking in Columbia, and opinions about the Iraq war in the US.

Meet the World is a profound example of the power of simple visuals, and subtle twists on anticipated experience, to make a high-impact statement about the world we live in. Check out the collection below.      

Meet The World 01Meet The World 07Meet The World 05Meet The World 04Meet The World 02Meet The World 06Meet The World 08Meet The World 03

Grande Reportagem's (2005)  Meet the World

 

 

Economist.com The Economist cover (March 21st - 27th, 2009) “How China sees the

World”

 

 

 

Saul Steinberg’s  New Yorker cover (March 29, 1976) “View of the World from 9th

Avenue”

Mental Imagery and Mental Maps

Chapter 3 Mental Imagery and Mental Maps. Carlson, E. and Coppack, P. (2010) Geographies of Everyday Life, 2nd ed.  Toronto: McGraw-Hill pp. 45-78

 

v     Mental Imagery pp. 45

-         Children vs. Adults

-         C.A Powell (1978) (spatial, relational, temporal, personal, value, affectional, public, private) pp. 45

 

v     Mental Maps Defined pp. 48

-         Douglas Charles David Pocock and Raymond Hudson (1973) pp. 46

-         Figure 3.1 Human Environment Interaction pp. 47

-         Figure 3.2 Distance Decay and Mental Map Information Surfaces pp. 49

 

v     Lynch’s Elements of the City pp. 50

-         Kevin Lynch (1960)  The Image of the City pp. 50

-         Imageability (legibility) pp. 50

-         Figure 3.3 Lynch’s Elements of the City pp. 51

-         Figure 3.4 Composite Mental Map of Downtown Toronto pp. 53

-         Figure 3.5 Composite Map of Boston pp. 54

 

        Refer to Mental Maps - Figures 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.13, 3.14 

 

v     Development of Spatial Learning and Mental Maps pp. 62

-         Jean Piaget and Barbel Inhelder (1956) pp. 63

-         Figure 3.15 Learning Space Intellectual Development & Spatial Awareness pp. 63

-         Raymond A. Hart and G. T. Moore (1973) pp. 65

-         Figure 3.16 Spatial Orientation and Intellectual Development pp. 66

 

v     Mental Map Structure in Adults pp. 67-68

-         Figure 3.17 How Mental Maps Get Drawn pp. 68

-         Figure 3.21 Americas view of the World pp. 77

-     Figure 3.22 A New Yorkers view of the United States pp. 77 

 

 

 

Mental Maps

 

   

 

Adults

    

 

 

 

Maria Piccioni © (2008)

 

 

 

Children

  

 

 

  

 

Maria Piccioni © (2008)

 

 

Place and Placelessness

Chapter 4 Place and Placelessness. Carlson, E. and Coppack, P. (2010) Geographies of Everyday Life, 2nd ed.  Toronto: McGraw-Hill pp. 79-104

v     Sense of Place / Placelessness pp. 79

-         Yi-FuTuan (1977)

-         Figure 4.1 Word Images of Place pp. 81

-         Toronto Unlimited / Toronto Live with Culture

-         Amenity Environments and Vernacular Landscapes and Marketing Places (vernacular landscapes, rural sentiment, amenity) pp. 100

-          Figure 4.12 Amenity and Rural Sentiment pp. 101

-          Placelessness / McDonaldization [Edward Relph (1976)] pp. 102

 

v     Topophilia & Topophobia (Yi-FuTuan) pp. 82

 

v     Safety of Place pp. 91

-         Figure 4.8 Environmental Contributors to Safety pp. 91

-         Figure 4.9 Gender Differences in Perceptions of Safety [Campus] pp. 93

 

v     Group Safety Audit – Ryerson Campus

 

v     Soundscapes & Smellscapes pp. 96

-         Figure 4.10 Soundscapes of Boston pp. 98  &  Figure 4.11 Boston Soundscapes pp. 99

 

 

Word Images of Place

 

Carlson, E. and Coppack, P. (2010) Geographies of Everyday Life, 2nd ed.  Toronto: McGraw-Hill pp. 81

 

 

 

 

Toronto Unlimited

http://www.torontounlimited.com/video.htm

 

http://www.torontounlimited.com/

 

 

 

Toronto Live with Culture

canada2 25

canada1 25

20070126_livewith.jpg             

 

 

 

 

                  www.livewithculture.ca/

Territory and Territoriality

Chapter 5 Territory and Territoriality. Carlson, E. and Coppack, P. (2010) Geographies of Everyday Life, 2nd ed.  Toronto: McGraw-Hill pp. 105-138

v     Home Feeling: The Struggle for a Community – Movie – (Handout)

 

v     Territory and Territoriality pp. 105

-         Definition and Nature of Territory pp. 105

-         Figure 5.1 Territoriality and Personal Space pp. 106

 

v     Control Mechanisms: Personalization / Defence pp. 106

-         Territorial Markers

-          Figure 5.2 Cultural Variability in Territory of Home pp. 107

-          Territorial Behaviour pp. 132

-          Figure 5.12 Territory of Elderly Men in San Diego pp. 133

-          Figure 5.13 Street Gang Graffiti Locations pp. 135

-          Figure 5.15 Grocery Shopping and Visiting Patterns of Protestants and Catholics pp. 137

 

-         Defence Methods (posture, gestures and position) pp. 107

 

v     Models and Types of Territory pp. 109

-         Micoterritory (micro-space)

-         Mesoterritory (mesospace, home territory)

-         Macroterritory (macrospace, home range, secondary territory)

 

v     P.D Roos, David Stea, Stanford M. Lyman and Marvin B. Scott

-         Figure 5.5 Three Models of Territory pp. 111

-         Figure 5.6 Interactional Territory and Traffic Flow pp. 113

 

v     Home as Territory pp. 113

 

v     At-Homeness – Home as Affect pp. 114

 

v     Neighbourhoods – Definition (Handout)

-         What does neighbourhood mean to you? How is it defined? How big is it? Who is included? What interactions occur there?

-          Figure 5.7 Visiting Patterns on Three Private Estates pp. 121

-          Figure 5.8 Perception of Neighbourhood – Core and Periphery pp. 122

-          Figure 5.9 Definitions of Neighbourhood by Activity Patterns pp. 124

 

-        Neighbourhood Typologies pp. 129  

-          Blowers’ (1973)

-          Lee (1968)

-          Richard M. Warren and Bashford J. A. Warren (1977)

 

v     City Edge Growth pp. 125

-         Figure 5.10 Residential Filtering pp. 127

-         Figure 7.11 Residential Changes Throughout Life pp. 182

-         Figure 5.11 Lifecycle Related Relocations in the North American City pp. 128

 

Time, Space, and Time-Space

Chapter 6  Time, Space, and Time-Space. Carlson, E. and Coppack, P. (2010) Geographies of Everyday Life, 2nd ed.  Toronto: McGraw-Hill pp. 139-172

v     Time, Space, and Time-Space pp. 139

-         Time as well as Space (organization of time, shape of time-space prisms, time space constraints, elastic space)

 

v     The Organization of Time pp. 139

-         Obligatory Time

-         Discretionary Time

 

v     The Arrow of Time / Time-Space Totality pp. 139-140

-         Figure 6.1 Time Space Totality pp. 140

 

v     Time-Space Prisms pp. 141

-         Figure 6.2 Time-Space Diagram pp. 141

-         Figure 6.3 Time-Space Prisms pp. 142

 

v     Time-Space Paths pp. 143

-         Figure 6.4 Daily Life Paths (Time Space Paths) pp. 145

 

v     Time-Space Convergence pp. 147

-         Figure 6.5 A Edinburgh to London pp. 148

-         Figure 6.5 B New York to Boston pp. 148

-         Figure 6.6 Effects of Time-Space Convergence on Hypothetical Trade Areas in Southern Ontario pp. 149

 

v     Time-Space Distantiation pp. 147

-         Figure 6.13 Daily Life Space Over Time (preindustrial society, industrial society, post industrial society) pp. 165

-         Figure 6.14 The Evolution of City Form pp. 166

-          Figure 7.4 Distance Decay and Frequency of Trips pp. 177

-          Figure 7.5 Distance Decay for Types of Social Trips pp. 178

-          Figure 7.6 Distance Decay Curves for Different Times of Day pp. 178

-          Figure 7.10 Commuting Change in the Toronto CMA 1971-1981 pp. 181

Spatial Interaction

Chapter 7 Spatial Interaction. Carlson, E. and Coppack, P. (2010) Geographies of Everyday Life, 2nd ed.  Toronto: McGraw-Hill pp. 173-206

v     Defining Spatial Interaction (physical flows and non-physical flows) pp. 173

 

v     The Roles of Spatial Interaction (integration, differentiation and specialization, organize the system, agent of change) pp. 174

 

v     George Kingsley Zipf (1949) Human Behaviour and the Principle of Least Effort 

 

v     Conceptualizing Movement pp. 175

-         Edward L. Ullman Model (complementarity, intervening opportunity, transferability)

 

v     Waldo R. Tobler (1970) First Law of Geography “All things are related, but near things are more related than far things”

  Friction of Distance

-         Figure 7.2 Distance Decay Revisited pp. 176

-         Figure 7.3 Distance Decay and Transportation Mode pp. 176

-         Figure 7.4 Distance Decay and Frequency of Trips pp. 177

-         Figure 7.5 Distance Decay for Types of Social Trips pp. 178

-         Figure 7.6 Distance Decay Curves for Different Times of Day pp. 178

-         Figure 7.7 Trip Type pp. 179

-         Figure 7.10 Commuting Change in the Toronto CMA 1971-1981 pp. 181

 

v     Distance Decay and Gravity Models pp. 191

                                                   

Ixy  =  (MxMy) / Dxy e

Where:

Ixy      the interaction between x and y, is equal to the product of the masses

Mx      the mass of x

My      the mass of y

Dxy     the distance between x and y

e          some exponent of distance (Newton used 2.0)

 

v     Gravity Model Formula & Scenarios (Scenario 1 through to Scenario 6) pp. 192-193

 

v     Effect of Distance Exponent – The Effects of Distance on Interaction – pp. 195

-         Figure 7.19A Low Friction of Distance pp. 195

-         Figure 7.19B High Friction of Distance pp. 195

-         Figure 7.20 Distance Decay Curves for Various Products pp. 196

 

        Determine the Effect of the Distance Exponent pp. 197

 

v     William J. Reilly (1931) – Law of Retail Growth –

-         Figure 7.21 Thorncliffe Mall Trade Area pp. 199

 

v     Converse Breakpoint Method of Trade Area Delimitation

-         Breakpoint Formula & Examples (Handout)

 

Dx =       Dxy

   1 + √ (Ax / Ay )

 

Where:

Dx             is the distance of the market boundary between mall (or retail outlet) x and mall (or retail outlet) y, as measured from x

 

Dxy           is the distance between x and y

 

Ax &Ay    are the masses (or attractiveness) of malls x and y respectively

 

v     Thiessen Polygon Technique

-         Figure 7.22 Theissen Polygons for a Chain of Fast Food Restaurants in Toronto pp. 201

 

v     Huff Model

 

Designs for Human Activities

Chapter 8  Designs for Human Activities. Carlson, E. and Coppack, P. (2010) Geographies of Everyday Life, 2nd ed.  Toronto: McGraw-Hill pp. 207-224

v     Adaptive and Integrative Environments pp. 207

-         Adaptive Environments (streetscapes, living spaces, workplaces)

-          Figure 8.1 Maximizing Panhandling Income in Santiago, Chile pp. 208

-          Figure 8.2 Sleeping Around (Inadvertently Topohilia) pp. 209

-          Figure 8.3 Influence of Fixed Features on Hospital Work Environments pp. 209

 

-         Integrative Environments (sociopetality, sociofugality) pp. 210

-          Robert Sommers Study (1969)

-          Figure 8.4 Sociopetality and Sociofugality pp. 211

-          Figure 8.5 Personal Space – Table Seating Preferences pp. 212

-          Figure 8.6 Student Participation in the Typical Classroom pp. 212

-          Figure 8.7 Student Participation and Instructor Location pp. 213

-          Figure 8.8 Territorial Defence at the Study Table pp. 214 

 

v     Creating Neighbourhoods – Urban Neighbourhood Planning –

-         Figure 8.9 Howard’s Three Magnets pp. 215

-         Figure 8.10 Detail of Howard’s Ideal City pp. 215

-         Figure 8.11 Perry’s Neighbourhood Unit pp. 216

-         Figure 8.12 Tripp’s Precinct Plan for London pp. 217

-         Figure 8.13 Radburn pp. 218

-         Figure 8.14 The Radburn Plan pp. 219

-         Figure 8.15 Kapuskasing pp. 220

 

v     Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) pp. 220 (Handout)

-         Oscar Newman Defensible Space (1972) pp. 220

-          Figure 8.16 Natural Surveillance pp. 221

-          Figure 8.17 Natural Access Control pp. 222

-          Figure 8.18 Territorial Reinforcement pp. 223

 

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED)

http://www.cptedontario.ca/

 

LINKS:

NICP (National Institute of Crime Prevention)
Hosts of the 2007 U.S. CPTED Conference
nicp.net

Florida Design Out Crime Association
www.fldoca.com

International CPTED Association
www.cpted.net

Peel Regional Police
www.peelpolice.on.ca/Crime%20Prevention/Virtual%20Library%20and%20Resource%20Centre.aspx

York University Security Services - Crime Prevention
www.yorku.ca/security/crimePrevention.htm

The European Designing Out Crime Association
www.e-doca.net/links.htm

The U.K. Designing Out Crime Association
www.doca.org.uk

The Mississauga CPTED Advisory Committee
mississauga.ca/PLANBLDG/cpted/html/CPTED_Advisory_Main_Page.htm

University of Windsor Campus Community Police
www.uwindsor.ca/police

Durham Regional Police
www.drps.ca

Ontario Provincial Police
www.opp.ca

Owen Sound Police
owensoundpolice.com

Urbanization -  A Historical Diversion

Chapter 9 Urbanization - A Historical Diversion. Carlson, E. and Coppack, P. (2010) Geographies of Everyday Life, 2nd ed.  Toronto: McGraw-Hill pp. 225-232

 

v     The Nature of Urban pp. 225

-         Defining Urban with Numbers

-         Defining Urban with Type of Activity

-         Defining Urban with Way of Life

 

v     Rural Urban Continuum

 

v     Urban Growth vs. Urbanization pp. 225

-         Figure 9.1 Urban Growth versus Urbanization pp. 226

-         Figure 9.2 Growth Stages of Urbanization pp. 227

 

v     Urbanization Processes pp. 227

-         Economic Transformation  pp. 229

-         Demographic Transformation pp. 229

-         Social Transformation pp. 232

-         Figure 9.3 Urbanization Structural Changes pp. 228

 

v     Urban Explosion

 

Rural Urban Continuum

geographypages.co.uk

 

 

Demographic Transformation

The Demographic Transition Model

 

nssgeography.com

For more information  - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographic_transition 

Form and Structure in the City

Chapter 10  Form and Structure in the City. Carlson, E. and Coppack, P. (2010) Geographies of Everyday Life, 2nd ed.  Toronto: McGraw-Hill pp. 233-264

 

v     Bid Rent Theory – Johannes Heinrich Von Thunen (1800) pp. 233

-         Agricultural Land Use Model pp. 234

-         Figure 10.1 The Bid Rent Model pp. 235

 

v     Urban Land Use & Land Value Theory – William Alonso (1960) pp. 238

-         Figure 10.2 The Urban Bid Rent Model pp. 239

-         Figure 10.5 The Urban Bid Rent Model with Local Use Variations pp. 241

 

v     Bid Rent & Residential Choice Behaviour pp. 244

-         Access to CBD vs. Desire for Maximum Amount of Space pp. 244

-         Utility – Transport Costs vs. Land Costs pp. 244

-         Figure 10.9 Residential Location Choice pp. 245

-         Figure 10.10 Land Use Patterns pp. 247

 

v     The Spatial Form of the City’s Countryside pp. 252

-         John Friedmann and John Miller (1960) Urban Field Concept 

-         Phillip Coppack and Christopher R. Bryant (1980)

-         Figure 10.12 Model of Metropolitan Evolution pp. 253

-         Figure 10.13 Daily Life Spaces for the City pp. 254

-         Figure 10.14 Transportation Modes and the Form of the City pp. 255

 

v     Models of Internal City Structure (1920 - 1945) pp. 258

-         Ernest Burgess (1925) Concentric Zone Model pp. 261

-         Homer Hoyt (1939) Sectoral Model pp. 261

-         Chauncy Harris and Edward L. Ullman (1945) Multiple Nuclei Model pp. 263

-         Figure 10.17 Urban Land Use Models pp. 26

 

 

 

Agricultural Land Use Model [Johannes Heinrich Von Thünen (1800s)]

-  Zones of Land Use -

 

(black dot – represents a city) urban area

1.      (white) dairy and dairying (fluid milk), dairy products (butter, cheese)

2.      (green) market gardening

3.      (yellow) grain production (wheat, corn) and field crops

4.      (red) livestock and general farming

5.      (dark green) grazing – represents wilderness where agriculture is not profitable

 

 

 

The Spatial Form of the City's Countryside

 

 

Carlson, E. and Coppack, P. (2010) Geographies of Everyday Life, 2nd ed.  Toronto: McGraw-Hill pp. 254

 

 

 

 

Models of Internal City Structure

 

 

 

 

http://lewishistoricalsociety.com/wiki2011/tiki-read_article.php?articleId=91

 

 

 

Groups of People in Cities: Who are your Neighbours?

Chapter 11  Groups of People in Cities: Who are your Neighbours? Carlson, E. and Coppack, P. (2010) Geographies of Everyday Life, 2nd ed.  Toronto: McGraw-Hill pp. 265-290

v     Groups of People in Cities -  Urban Social Ecologies pp. 265

-         Figure 11.1 Form and Process in the City pp. 265

 

v     Hard / Soft Aspects of Form and Process -  Urban Social Geography (ecological approach, social area analysis, factorial ecology)

 

v     Ecological Approach (EA) / Urban Ecology

-         The Assimilation Model

-          Figure 11.2 The Assimilation Model pp. 267

 

v     Social Area Analysis (SAA) (social status, family status, ethnic status) pp. 267-268

-         Figure 11.3 Developing SAA Indices pp. 270

-         Figure 11.4 Social Space Matrix pp. 271

-         Figure 11.5 Social Area Analysis pp. 271

-         Figure 11.6 A Social Area Analysis of San Francisco pp. 272

 

v     Factorial Ecology pp. 273

-         Figure 11.16A Factorial Ecology of Post Industrial Canadian Cities pp. 282

-         Figure 11.11B Factorial Ecology of Post Industrial Canadian Cities pp. 283

-         Problems with Factorial Ecologies  pp. 283

-          Figure 11.17 Neighbourhoods of Married Gay People pp. 285

 

v     Spatial Patterns of Social Dimensions pp. 275

-         Figure 11.8 The Spatial Dimensions of Social Area Constructs pp. 276

 

v     Toronto’s Social Areas pp. 277

-         Figure 11.9 Social Space in Toronto pp. 277

-         Figure 11.10 Social Space in Chicago pp. 277

 

v     Changing Urban Ecologies

-          Figure 11.15 A Developmental Sequence of Social Structure pp. 280

 

v     Community Space, Consumer Space pp. 285

-          Figure 11.19 Canadian Geodemographics pp. 287

-          Figure 11.14 One of the 66 Prizm Lifestyles pp. 287

-          Figure 11.21 Richmond Hill – Potential for Expenditure on Clothing pp. 288

-          Figure 11.22 Canadian Lifestyle Groups pp. 288 

 

Quality of Life: How Great is your Neighbourhood?

Chapter 12 Quality of Life: How Great is your Neighbourhood? Carlson, E. and Coppack, P. (2010) Geographies of Everyday Life, 2nd ed.  Toronto: McGraw-Hill pp. 291-307

 

v     Defining Quality of Life (QoL) [David Smith]

 

v     A Quality of Life Model pp. 291

 

QoL =                   f ( R, O, P, A)

                           _________________

                                 ( S, E, L, AP, QE )

 

Where:

Contributors to QoL:

R: available resources

O: available opportunities

P: available environments

A: attitudes towards resources,

opportunities and environments

 

Constraints to QoL:

S: socio-economic constraints

E: ethnic constraints

L: lifestyle status constraints

AP: constraints on access to

political power

QE: poor quality of physical

environments

v     Issues in Analyzing Quality of Life pp. 293

 

v     Social Accounting  - The Roots of Quality of Life Analysis pp. 294

 

v     Quality of Life Indicators in the City pp. 295

-         Figure 12.9 Healthy City Indicators for Toronto pp. 300

-         Figure 12.10 Quality of Life Indicators for FCM (Canada) pp. 301

 

v     Conceptual Models of Quality of Life         

-         Aggregate Satisfaction Model (ASM)

-         The Gap Theoretic Approach

-          The Gap Theoretic Model